Annex to the FIDE Tournament Regulations regarding tiebreaks
1. Handling of unplayed games
For tie-break purposes, the result shall be counted as a draw against the player himself. This has no effect on the Sum of Progressive Score or Koya System. In such systems only the result counts.
List of commonly used Tiebreak Systems
In all Systems the players shall be ranked in descending order of the respective system. Within the following list there is not intended to be any indication of an order of preference.
2. Tiebreak Rules using the Player's own results
(a) Sum of Progressive Scores
(a1) Sum of Progressive Score Cuts
(b) The Koya System for Round Robin Tournaments
(b1) The Koya System extended
(c) Number of games won
(d) The greater number of games played with the black pieces.
(e) Direct Encounter
(f) Number of games won
(g) The greater number of games played with the black pieces.
3. Tiebreak Rules using a team's own results
(a) Match points in Team Competitions decided by game points,
(b) Game points in Team Competitions decided by match points.
(c) Combined match and game points
(d) Direct Encounter
4. Tiebreak Rules using the Results of Opponents
Note, these scores are determined in each case after the application of the rule concerning unplayed games.
(a) The Buchholz System
(b) The Sonneborn-Berger System
5. Tiebreak Rules using Ratings
Note, the rating used is after the
application of the rule concerning unplayed games.
(a) Adequate time must be set aside for a conclusion to be reached.
(b) The pairings system and rate of play must be determined in advance of the start of the event.
(c) All eventualities must be covered in the regulations.
(d) It is recommended that playoffs only be arranged for disposition of the first place, a championship or qualifying places.
(e) Where subsidiary places are also decided during the tie, each player shall be allotted his score according to his result in the playoff. For example: Three players tie. Number 1 wins, number 2 comes second and number 3 third. Number 2 receives second prize.
(f) Where two players are tied after the first place is decided, they shall split any prize money to which they are entitled. For example, four players tie. A knockout is arranged. Players 3 and 4 knocked out in the semi-final share the 3rd and 4th prize equally.
(g) Where time is limited before a closing ceremony, games between players potentially involved in such ties in the last round may be scheduled to commence earlier than other games in the tournament.
(h) If there is a playoff these will commence after a break of at least 30 minutes after the conclusion of the last main game involving players in the play off. Where there are further stages, there will be a break of at least 10 minutes between each stage.
(i) Each game shall be controlled by an arbiter. If there is a dispute, this will be referred to a committee of three further arbiters. Their decision shall be final.
(j) Colours shall be determined by lot in all cases below, other than those determined by the Berger tables.
(k) The following is an example where time for playoff is somewhat limited.
1. If two people tie for first:
2. If three people tie for first:
3. If four players tie for first: they play a knockout.
4. If five players tie for first: they play a one game round
robin at the rate as in 1(a).
5. If six players tie for first: they will be split into two
sections of three. Players 1, 4, 5 will be placed in one section and 2, 3, 6
in the other in order of HT.
6. If seven players tie for first: they play Armageddon. If there is a tie for first place, the places are decided by the player who scored the point in fewest moves. Pairing numbers in order of highest HT: 1, 5, 2, 6, 3, 7, 4 or by lot.
7. If eight players tie they play knockout, 1v8, 2v7, 3v6 and 4v5 as in 1 (b).
8. If nine players tie they play 3 sections of three, 2 (b). Group A: 1, 5, 9. Group B: 2, 6, 7. Group C 3, 4, 8.
9. If ten players tie they play in two sections of five as in
10. If eleven or more players tie, those ranked nine or lower
by HT will be eliminated. They share a fraction of the total prize fund as
decided in advance.
11. The right is reserved to make necessary changes.
12. Where only two players are involved in the playoff, if
time permits, they may play at a slower rate of play by agreement with the CA and CO.
7. Choice of Tiebreak System
The choice of the Tiebreak System to be used in a tournament shall be decided in advance taking into account the type of the tournament (Swiss, Round Robin, Teams, etc.) and the special structure of players expected to participate in the tournament. For instance the application of Tiebreak rules using the ratings of players is inappropriate in tournaments where the ratings are not available or not consistent or not necessarily correct (e.g. Junior/Senior tournaments)
Only one type of the five categories described above should be used for a given event. For example: using Sum of Progressive Score + Buchholz would be incorrect.
For different types of tournaments the Tiebreak Rules recommended are as listed below:
(a) Individual Round Robin Tournaments:
(b) Team Round Robin System:
(c) Individual Swiss Systems (all players have consistent
(d) Individual Swiss Systems (where not all the ratings are
(e) Team Swiss Systems: